The conquest of Mecca refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad in December or January AD, (Julian), . Also known as Conquest of Syria – By Il Imam Al Waqidi. 2 volume set. Al-Imam al -Waqidi, the great historian, was born at the beginning of Hijri in al. Conquest of the Sahabah| Futuhush Sham & al-Misr al-Iskandriyyah [# 2F2 HB 2 VOL,Imam Al Waqidi English: S Al-Kindi, ZAM ZAM. Fath Syria Egypt.
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Conquest of the Persian Empire. Conquest of Roman Syria. Campaigns in Armenia and Anatolia. The conquest sshaba Mecca Arabic: The conversion of these thee to the Julian calendar depends on what assumptions are made about the calendar in use in Mecca at the time. In the Meccan tribe of Quraysh and the Muslim community in Medina signed a 10 year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah.
Inthis truce was broken when the Banu Bakrallies of the Quraysh, attacked the Banu Khuza’awho had recently become allies of the Muslims.
According to the terms of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, the Arab tribes were given the option of joining either of the sides, the Muslims or Quraysh. Should any of these tribes face aggression, the party to which it was allied would have the right to retaliate.
They thus lived in peace for some time; but ulterior motives stretching back to the pre-Islamic period, ignited by unabated fire of revenge, triggered fresh hostilities.
Quraysh helped Banu Bakr with men and arms, taking advantage of the dark night. Pressed by their enemies, the tribesmen of Khuza’ah sought the Holy Sanctuary, but here too, their lives were not spared, and, contrary to all accepted traditions, Nawfal, the chief of Banu Bakr, chased them in the sanctified area — where no blood should be shed — and massacred his adversaries. Khuza’ah at once sent a delegation to Medina to inform Muhammadof this breach of truce and to seek help from Muslims of Medina being their allies.
After the incident, Quraysh sent a delegation to Muhammad, petitioning to maintain the treaty with the Muslims and offering material compensation. The Muslim forces had gathered in strength to settle account with Quraysh and for the final attack and the opening of Mecca.
After Abu Sufyan ibn Harb ‘s departure, Muhammad immediately assembled a large army. The objective of the operation was kept secret and even Muhammad’s close friends and commanders did not know his plans. Muhammad intended to assemble and attack the Quraysh using the element of surprise. For further secrecy, Muhammad sent Abu Qatadah towards “Batan Izm” to give the impression that he wanted to go there. This was the largest Muslim force ever assembled as of that time.
The army stayed at Marr-uz-Zahran, located ten miles northwest of Mecca.
Muhammad ordered every man to light a fire so as to make the Meccans overestimate the size of the army. Meanwhile, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb travelled back and forth between Muhammad and Mecca, still trying to reach a settlement in order to avoid conquest.
According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad’s uncle Al-Abbasthough some scholars [ who? There were four entry routes through passes in the hills.
These were from the north-west, the south-west, the south, and the north-east. Muhammad divided the Muslim army into four columns: The main column in which Muhammad was present was commanded by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah. It was tasked to enter Mecca through the main Madina route, from the north-west near Azakhir.
Muhammad’s cousin Az Zubayr commanded the second column and it would enter Mecca from the south-west, through a pass west of Kuda hill.
Conquest of The Sahaba
The column entering from the south through Kudai was under the leadership of Muhammad’s cousin Ali. The last column under Khalid ibn al-Walid was tasked to enter from the north-east, through Khandama and Lait. Their tactic was to advance simultaneously from all sides targeting a single central objective. This would lead to the dispersion of enemy forces and prevent their concentration on any one front. Another important reason for this tactic was that even if one or two of the attacking columns faced stiff resistance and became unable to break through, then the attack could continue from other flanks.
This would also prevent any of the Quraysh from escaping. Muhammad emphasized on refraining from fighting unless Quraysh attacked. The hardened anti-Muslims like Ikrimah and Sufwan teh a band of Quraysh fighters and faced Khalid’s column.
The Quraysh attacked the Oc with swords and bows, and the Muslims charged the Quraysh’s positions. Conwuest a short skirmish the Quraysh gave ground after losing twelve men.
Muslim losses were two warriors. On the tye of the opening, Abu Sufyan adopted Islam. When asked by Muhammad, he conceded that the Meccan gods had proved powerless and that there was indeed ” no god but God “, the first part of the Islamic confession of faith. In turn, Muhammad declared Abu Sufyan’s house a conqest because he was the present chief, and that all the others were gathered over ths territory, therefore:. Then, along with his companions Muhammad visited the Kaaba.
The idols were broken and their gods sahaab destroyed. Thereupon Muhammad recited the following verse from the Quran: Verily falsehood is bound to vanish. And they said, “Mercy, O Prophet of God. We expect nothing but good from you. This day there is no reproof against you; Go your way, for you are free. Emissaries from all over Arabia came to Medina to accept him. Ten people were ordered to be killed: However, they were not all killed; Ikrimah lived to adopt Islam and fight in future battles among Muslim ranks.
Of the two singing girls who were outlawed by Mohammad, one was slain but the other spared because she converted to Islam.
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Conquest of Mecca – Wikipedia
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. The Arabs in history. Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events pages 72 and 82 as footnote Ibn Hisham, As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah2p. Ishaqun Nabi Alvi August”? Military career of Muhammad.
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Conquest of Sahaba – 2 Volume Box
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